Centered Recovery’s unique mindfulness program doesn’t make any claims that aren’t backed by experts in the fields of psychology, neurology, mental health, and addiction. Below are just a few examples of published research that were referenced or used in the creation of this cutting edge, comprehensive program. 

Mindfulness-Based Treatment to Prevent Addictive Behavior Relapse: Theoretical Models and Hypothesized Mechanisms of Change. Katie Witkiewitz, Sarah Bowen, Erin N. Harrop, Haley Douglas, Matthew Enkema, and Carly Sedgwick. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5441879/

Trying to be happier really can work: Two experimental studies, Yuna L. Ferguson, retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17439760.2012.747000

Meditative Therapies for Reducing Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Chen et al, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2848393/

Understanding Meditation: How Attention Changes Our Brains. Michael Stanclift, N.D., retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-stanclift-nd/neuroplasticity_b_1131652.html

Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. GH Recanzone, CE Schreiner and MM Merzenich, retrieved from https://www.jneurosci.org/content/13/1/87.long

How Science is Unlocking the Secrets of Addiction. Fran Smith, retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/09/the-addicted-brain/#close

Antidepressant Use Among Persons Aged 12 and Over: United States, 2011–2014. Pratt et al, retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db283.pdf

Facts & Statistics, retrieved from https://adaa.org/about-adaa/press-room/facts-statistics

Alcohol Facts and Statistics, retrieved from https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/alcohol-facts-and-statistics

Mindfulness-Based Therapies for Substance Use Disorders: Part 1 (Editorial). Marcus et al, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2818765/

Brain Scans Show How Meditation Improves Mental Focus. Brian Gowin, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/you-illuminated/201204/brain-scans-show-how-meditation-improves-mental-focus

Practical support aids addiction recovery: the positive identity model of change, Johansen, et al, retrieved from https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-13-201

How Mindfulness Makes the Brain Immune to Temptation. Kelly McGonigal, retrieved from
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-science-willpower/201111/how-mindfulness-makes-the-brain-immune-temptation

Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Substance Use Disorders: A Pilot Efficacy Trial, Bowen, et al, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3280682/

Relative efficacy of mindfulness-based relapse prevention, standard relapse prevention, and treatment as usual for substance use disorders: a randomized clinical trial, Bowen, et al, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24647726

The Clinical Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Treatments for Alcohol and Drugs Use Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized and Nonrandomized Controlled Trials, Cavicchioli M., Movalli M., Maffei C., retrieved from https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/490762

Meditation and psychotherapy: A rationale for the integration of dynamic psychotherapy, the relaxation response, and mindfulness meditation. Kutz, I., Boryensko, J.Z. & Benson, H. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1985-15147-001

Rumination: A Problem in Anxiety and Depression, Margaret Wehrenberg Psy.D. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/depression-management-techniques/201604/rumination-problem-in-anxiety-and-depression

Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation In Everyday Life, Jon Kabat-Zinn.

Mindfulness‐Based Interventions in Context: Past, Present, and Future, Jon Kabat-Zinn. retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016

Mindfulness-based Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders, Witkiewitz, Marlatt, and Walker. retrieved from http://www.addictioneducation.co.uk/Witkiewitz%20et%20al%202005.MBRP.pdf

Human Needs, Buddhist Psychology and Mindfulness, Michael Formica. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/enlightened-living/201301/human-needs-buddhist-psychology-and-mindfulness

A modern take on Maslow’s theory, Virginia Dowdell. Retrieved from https://thegriff.ca/2016/01/modern-take-maslows-theory/

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, McLeod. Retrieved from http://highgatecounselling.org.uk/members/certificate/CT2%20Paper%201.pdf

Impacts of Drugs on Neurotransmission, by Carl Sherman, retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2017/03/impacts-drugs-neurotransmission

Alcohol, Sleep, and Why You Might Re-think that Nightcap, by Jordan Gaines Lewis, retrieved from https://www.nature.com/scitable/blog/mind-read/alcohol_sleep_and_why_you

Drug Abuse, Dopamine, and the Brain’s Reward System retrieved from https://www.hazeldenbettyford.org/education/bcr/addiction-research/drug-abuse-brain-ru-915

Feeling Sleepy? An Urge to Nap Is Built In, by Daniel Goleman, retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1989/09/12/science/feeling-sleepy-an-urge-to-nap-is-built-in.html

Water, Hydration and Health, by Barry M. Popkin, Kristen E. D’Anci, and Irwin H. Rosenberg, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2908954/

The Danger of Labeling Others (or Yourself). Art Markman, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/ulterior-motives/201406/the-danger-labeling-others-or-yourself

The Far-Reaching Effects of Believing People Can Change: Implicit Theories of Personality Shape Stress, Health, and Achievement During Adolescence. Yeager, et al, retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262538735_The_far-reaching_effects_of_believing_people_can_change_Implicit_theories_of_personality_shape_stress_health_and_achievement_during_adolescence

Mind-sets matter: a meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Burnette, et al. retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22866678

The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Control: Relevance for Development and Adolescent Psychopathology. Sven Mueller, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3223617/.

Perception And Reality. RJ Rummel, retrieved from https://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/DPF.CHAP7.HTM

Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference, Farb, et al. retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/scan/article/2/4/313/1676557

Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Substance Use Disorders: A Pilot Efficacy Trial, Bowen, et al. retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08897070903250084

Mindfulness-based Relapse Prevention for Addictive Behaviors: A Clinician’s Guide, Bowen, et al. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dsNG6s-3faAC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=mindfulness+based+relapse+prevention&ots=BihmddNiiw&sig=BJGUOFl7PmuuXqa4QOHxIKj5aj8#v=onepage&q=mindfulness%20based%20relapse%20prevention&f=false

When Belief Creates Reality, Mark Snyder, retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S006526010860146X

Urge Surfing. retrieved from https://med.dartmouth-hitchcock.org/documents/Urge-Surfing.pdf

Surfing the Urge: Experiential Acceptance Moderates the Relation Between Automatic Alcohol Motivation and Hazardous Drinking. Ostafin and Marlatt, retrieved from https://guilfordjournals.com/doi/abs/10.1521/jscp.2008.27.4.404

Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis, A Chiesa and A Serretti, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK77489/.

When science meets mindfulness, Alvin Powell, https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2018/04/harvard-researchers-study-how-mindfulness-may-change-the-brain-in-depressed-patients/.

Effects of Mindfulness on Psychological Health: A Review of Empirical Studies, Shian-Ling Keng, Moria J. Smoski, Clive J. Robins, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3679190/.

Sleep Disorders in Substance Abusers, How Common Are They?, Youssef Mahfoud, MD, Farid Talih, MD, David Streem, MD, and Kumar Budur, MD retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766287/

Sleep quality and emotions affect opioid addiction recovery, Kristie Auman-Bauer, retrieved from https://news.psu.edu/story/443476/2017/01/04/sleep-quality-and-emotions-affect-opioid-addiction-recovery

The Evolutionary Argument Against Reality, Amanda Gefter, retrieved from https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-evolutionary-argument-against-reality-20160421/

Human Vision as a Reality Engine. Hoffman, retrieved from http://cogsci.uci.edu/~ddhoff/HoffmanFABBS.pdf

Addiction as temporal disruption: interoception, self, meaning. Kemp, retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11097-018-9578-7

Effects of coping skills training on generalized self-efficacy and locus of control. Ronald Smith, retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1989-20710-001

Handbook for Strategic HR – Section 3: Use of Self as an Instrument of Change. Network, et al. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=oDRxCQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT53&dq=deep+listening&ots=xU0FpwaJfg&sig=EtkOvKsAnd8GP3scu4Igq4U4Hkc#v=onepage&q=deep%20listening&f=false

Listening: A Vital Skill. Kenneth C. Petress. retrieved from https://go.galegroup.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA62980773&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00941956&p=AONE&sw=w

Why Don’t We Listen Better?: Communicating & Connecting in Relationships. Jim Petersen, retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3bmS4oovMnQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=better+listening+for+better+communication&ots=qAtKuOlPZJ&sig=rlJMdEeub-ebOM01-iiDfUJRLs4#v=onepage&q=better%20listening%20for%20better%20communication&f=false

Understanding Delusions. Chandra Kiran, Suprakash Chaudhury, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3016695/

The consequences of fear. David Ropeik, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299209/

Fear, Anger, and Risk. Lerner and Keltner, retrieved from https://fbaum.unc.edu/teaching/articles/Lerner-2001-FearAngerRisk.pdf

How does stress increase risk of drug abuse and relapse? Since R. retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11797055/

How Labels Limit Us and We, In Turn, Limit Our Own Potential. Michael J Formica MS, MA, EdM, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/enlightened-living/200807/how-labels-limit-us-and-we-in-turn-limit-our-own-potential

Measuring Codependency, Fisher and Spann. retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J020V08N01_06

The Role of Acceptance and Job Control in Mental Health, Job Satisfaction, and Work Performance, Bond and Bunce. retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2003-09785-007

Narratives of recovery from addictive behaviours, Hanninen and Koski-Jannes, retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.941218379.x

Co-Dependency. https://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/co-dependency

6 Signs of a Codependent Relationship. Linda Esposito, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/anxiety-zen/201609/6-signs-codependent-relationship

What Codependency Is, and What It Isn’t. Ann Smith, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/healthy-connections/201507/what-codependency-is-and-what-it-isnt

Neuroscience Research Shows How Mood Impacts Perception. Susan Krauss Whitbourne, retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201611/neuroscience-research-shows-how-mood-impacts-perception

How emotions affect logical reasoning: evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety, by Nadine Jung, Christina Wranke, Kai Hamburger, and Markus Knauff retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4050437/

The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, by Fredrickson, B. American Psychologist, 56 (3), 218–226, retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.56.3.218

Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies, by Simón Guendelman, Sebastián Medeiros, and Hagen Rampes, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5337506/

Stress relief from laughter? It’s no joke, retrieved from:  https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress-relief/art-20044456

The Science of Laughter, by Robert Provine, retrieved from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/200011/the-science-laughter

Social laughter is correlated with an elevated pain threshold, by R. I. M. Dunbar , Rebecca Baron , Anna Frangou , Eiluned Pearce , Edwin J. C. van Leeuwen , Julie Stow , Giselle Partridge , Ian MacDonald , Vincent Barra and Mark van Vugt. Published:14 September 2011https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2011.1373 retrieved from https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rspb.2011.1373

Laugh it Up: Why Laughing Brings Us Closer Together, retrieved from: https://www.psychalive.org/laugh-it-up-why-laughing-brings-us-closer-together/

Science Proves That Gratitude Is Key to Well-Being, Andrea Brandt, PhD, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/mindful-anger/201807/science-proves-gratitude-is-key-well-being

The Effects of Two Novel Gratitude and Mindfulness Interventions on Well-Being, Karen O’ Leary, MA, and Samantha Dockray, PhD, retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Karen_Matvienko-Sikar/publication/274317810_The_Effects_of_Two_Novel_Gratitude_and_Mindfulness_Interventions_on_Well-Being/links/55310e440cf2f2a588abfccd/The-Effects-of-Two-Novel-Gratitude-and-Mindfulness-Interventions-on-Well-Being.pdf

The Science and Research on Gratitude and Happiness, Erica Stoerkel, retrieved from https://positivepsychology.com/gratitude-happiness-research/

The brain on silent: mind wandering, mindful awareness, and states of mental tranquility. Vago and Zeidan, retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866730/

Know Your Brain: Default Mode Network. retrieved from https://neuroscientificallychallenged.com/blog/know-your-brain-default-mode-network

The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Buckner, et al. retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18400922

Why New Years Resolutions Fail. Shainna Ali, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/modern-mentality/201812/why-new-years-resolutions-fail

The Psychology Behind New Years Resolutions. Mark Griffiths, retrieved from https://www.iflscience.com/brain/psychology-new-year-s-resolutions/

5 Tips for Setting Healthy Goals, David Feldman, retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/supersurvivors/201902/5-tips-setting-healthy-goals

Mental practice and physical practice in learning a motor skill. Twining, W. E. retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1950-03080-001.

The Future of Memory: Remembering, Imagining, and the Brain. Spachter, et al. retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3815616/

4 Scientific Reasons Why Visualizations Will Increase Your Chances to Succeed. Emilie Pelletier, retrieved from https://entrepreneurs.maqtoob.com/4-scientific-reasons-why-visualization-will-increase-your-chances-to-succeed-5515ef2dbdb7


Relative Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention, Standard Relapse Prevention, and Treatment as Usual for Substance Use Disorders

Sarah Bowen, PhD; Katie Witkiewitz, PhD; Seema L. Clifasefi, PhD; et al
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(5):547-556

“For individuals in aftercare following initial treatment for substance use disorders, RP and MBRP, compared with TAU, produced significantly reduced relapse risk to drug use and heavy drinking. Relapse prevention delayed time to first drug use at 6-month follow-up, with MBRP and RP participants who used alcohol also reporting significantly fewer heavy drinking days compared with TAU participants. At 12-month follow-up, MBRP offered added benefit over RP and TAU in reducing drug use and heavy drinking. Targeted mindfulness practices may support long-term outcomes by strengthening the ability to monitor and skillfully cope with discomfort associated with craving or negative affect, thus supporting long-term outcomes.”


From the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment – April 2017:

Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

By: Wen Li, Matthew O. Howard, Eric L. Garland, Patricia McGovern, Michael Lazar
Funded by the National Institutes of Health

Abstract
High rates of relapse following substance misuse treatment highlight an urgent need for effective therapies. Although the number of empirical studies investigating effects of mindfulness treatment for substance misuse has increased dramatically in recent years, few reviews have examined findings of mindfulness studies. Thus, this systematic review examined methodological characteristics and substantive findings of studies evaluating mindfulness treatments for substance misuse published by 2015. The review also includes the first meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of mindfulness treatments for substance misuse. Comprehensive bibliographic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, identified 42 pertinent studies. Meta-analytic results revealed significant small-to-large effects of mindfulness treatments in reducing the frequency and severity of substance misuse, intensity of craving for psychoactive substances, and severity of stress. Mindfulness treatments were also effective in increasing rates of posttreatment abstinence from cigarette smoking compared to alternative treatments. Mindfulness treatment for substance misuse is a promising intervention for substance misuse, although more research is needed examining the mechanisms by which mindfulness interventions exert their effects and the effectiveness of mindfulness treatments in diverse treatment settings.


Mindfulness Meditation Is Associated With Structural Changes in the Brain

Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density.
Hölzel BK1, Carmody J, Vangel M, Congleton C, Yerramsetti SM, Gard T, Lazar SW.

According to a recent study, practicing mindfulness meditation appears to be associated with measurable changes in the brain regions involved in memory, learning, and emotion. Mindfulness meditation focuses attention on breathing to develop increased awareness of the present. Previous research has demonstrated that mindfulness meditation may reduce symptoms of anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, but little is known about its effects on the brain. The focus of the current study — published in the journal Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging — was to identify brain regions that changed in participants enrolled in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program.